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            1. 法律圖書館

            2. 新法規速遞

            3. 中華人民共和國海事局關于印發《中國沿海防范商漁船碰撞事故指引(2023版)》的通知

              1. 【頒布時間】2023-9-22
              2. 【標題】中華人民共和國海事局關于印發《中國沿海防范商漁船碰撞事故指引(2023版)》的通知
              3. 【發文號】海安全函〔2023〕1671號
              4. 【失效時間】
              5. 【頒布單位】海事局
              6. 【法規來源】https://xxgk.mot.gov.cn/2020/jigou/haishi/202309/t20230922_3924257.html

              7. 【法規全文】

               

              中華人民共和國海事局關于印發《中國沿海防范商漁船碰撞事故指引(2023版)》的通知

              中華人民共和國海事局關于印發《中國沿海防范商漁船碰撞事故指引(2023版)》的通知

              海事局


              中華人民共和國海事局關于印發《中國沿海防范商漁船碰撞事故指引(2023版)》的通知


              中華人民共和國海事局關于印發《中國沿海防范商漁船碰撞事故指引(2023版)》的通知

              海安全函〔2023〕1671號


              中遠海運集團、招商局集團、中交建設集團,中國航海學會、中國船東協會、中國無船承運人及代理協會、中國水上交通安全協會,各省、自治區、直轄市交通運輸廳(局、委),各直屬海事局:

              為防范化解商漁船碰撞風險,引導廣大航運企業、沿海航行船舶及船員更好落實水上交通安全主體責任,進一步強化商漁船防碰撞工作,現將《中國沿海防范商漁船碰撞事故指引(2023版)》印發給你們,請結合實際做好宣傳推廣和使用工作。

              中華人民共和國海事局

              2023年9月22日

              (此件公開發布)

              中國沿海防范商漁船碰撞事故指引

              GUIDELINE FOR THE PREVENTION OF COLLISION BETWEEN MERCHANT VESSELS AND FISHING VESSELS IN COASTAL WATERS OF CHINA

              本指引參考《1972年國際海上避碰規則》和中國沿海商漁船航行實際,結合航運公司、行業協會、海事院校的實踐經驗,堅持“安全第一、預防為主”的原則,對在中國沿海航行商船優化航行方法,規范避讓行動和應急救助等提出建議,旨在為船舶預防碰撞事故提供指導,提升商漁船碰撞風險防控能力。

              This guideline incorporates the International Regulations for Preventing Collisions at Sea 1972, as well as the navigation and fishing practices specific to the coastal waters of China. It also takes into account the practical experiences of shipping companies, industry associations and maritime institutions. Following the principle of Prioritizing Safety and Emphasizing Prevention, this guideline offers recommendations to optimize navigation techniques, regulate action to avoid collision, and address emergency rescue measures for merchant vesselsnavigating in the coastal waters of China. Its objective is to provide guidance on collision prevention and to improve the collision risk control capabilities of both merchant and fishing vessels.

              一、航行方法

              1. Navigation Techniques

              目的港為中國沿海港口或航經中國沿海的船舶,開航前應重點關注中國沿海漁場分布,加強航次避碰風險分析評估,科學制定航次計劃。涉及漁船密集水域的,要時刻謹記:安全第一、寧可繞行、不要冒險!如必須進入漁船密集水域,應盡可能了解漁船捕魚作業的方式及對捕魚號燈及網具的識別方法等,掌握漁船捕魚的交通流向,提前制定避讓方案,找出最佳穿越航線。

              Prior to voyages bound for Chinese ports or transiting through coastal waters of China, special attention should be paid to the spatial distribution of fishing grounds in these areasbefore departure. It is essential to conduct a thorough collision risk assessment and carefully make voyage plans. Beware of the clusters of fishing vessels and prioritize safety above all, opting to avoid such clusters rather than taking unnecessary risks. In situations where entry into waters with high concentrations of fishing vessels is unavoidable, proper identification of fishing vessels, their lights, shapes, and nets, as well as their ongoing fishing operations, is highly recommended. Developing a collision avoidance plan in advance to safely pass clear of all fishing vessels and their nets is strongly advised.

              (一)進入漁船密集區水域之前。

              1.1 Prior to entering areas with high concentrations of fishing vessels.

              1.召開航行安全會議,確保駕駛臺所有航行值班人員知曉漁船作業特點、漁船密集水域航行安全注意事項,進一步評估碰撞風險、優化避讓方案、通報情況,并督促船員遵照執行。

              1.1.1 A navigation safety meeting should be organized to ensure that all bridge watch-keeping personnel are well-informed about the characteristics of fishing operations, safety precautions for navigating in areas with high concentrations of fishing vessels, comprehensive collision risk assessment, optimization of collision avoidance plans, information reporting and sharing, as well as emphasizing the importance of crew members adhering to these guidelines.

              2.對雷達、電子海圖、船舶自動識別系統、航行數據記錄儀、甚高頻無線電話,以及航行燈、白晝信號燈和其他聲響信號設備進行檢查和測試,確保正常可用。

              1.1.2 Thoroughly inspect and test navigational aids and communication equipment, including radar, ECDIS/ECS, AIS, VDR, VHF, navigation lights, Aldis light, and other sound-signaling appliances, to ensure that they are all in good working condition.

              3.檢查“四機一爐”,確保工作狀況良好。備妥主機,以便隨時用車。對手操舵(隨動、非隨動)、自動舵和應急操舵等操舵方式進行測試,確保操舵系統工作正常,以便隨時緊急操縱避碰。

              1.1.3. Conduct a thorough examination of the main engine, auxiliary engine, steering gear, windlass, and boilers to ensure that they are all in optimal working condition. Ensure that the main engine is prepared for immediate maneuvering. Test the manual (Follow-up, Non-Follow up), auto, and emergency steering to verify that the steering system is in good working order, ready to facilitate emergency collision avoidance actions if required.

              4.合理安排值班,任何時候駕駛臺都應保持至少兩名航行值班人員。

              1.1.4 Ensure appropriate bridge watchkeepinglevel, with a minimum of two watchstanders consistently on the bridge to fulfill their duties and responsibilities.

              (二)經過或臨近漁船密集區水域期間。

              1.2 Navigating in or close to areas with high concentrations of fishing vessels.

              1.駕駛臺航行值班人員應使用視覺、聽覺以及適合當時環境和情況的一切可用手段保持正規瞭望,全面掌握本船周邊水域其他船舶的航行態勢,以便對局面和碰撞危險作出充分的估計。

              1.2.1 Bridge watchstanders should at all times maintain a proper look-out by sight and hearing as well as by all available means appropriate in the prevailing circumstances and conditions, comprehensively collect the navigation situation of other vessels in the vicinity, so as to make a full appraisal of the situation and of the risk of collision.

              2.進入漁船密集區域航行時應將自動舵調整為手操舵。若當時環境許可,盡可能保持1海里以上距離通過,并保持戒備,防止漁船因為護網等原因突然加速、停船、掉頭等造成緊迫局面。

              1.2.2 The auto steering should be changed to manual when entering areas with high concentrations of fishing vessels. Clearing distance of at least 1 nm should be maintained if the circumstances of the case admit. Maintain a high level of vigilance and strive to avoid close-quarters situations arising from sudden speed changes, stops and course alterations by fishing vessels to protect their nets.

              3.值班駕駛員根據周圍漁船密集程度和航行值班強度調整值班等級,必要時應立即通知船長上駕駛臺。

              1.2.3 Officer of the watch should adapt the level of watch-keeping based on the density of fishing vessels and  workload, and if necessary, promptly call master to the bridge.  

              4.船長要針對夜間漁區航行的特殊戒備要求,制定和簽發夜航命令。

              1.2.4 Master should issue night orders based on the necessary safety precautions while navigating through fishing grounds during nighttime.

              (三)應特別注意的事項。

              1.3 Matters requiring special attention.

              1.每年伏季休漁結束后,是中國沿海漁船活動密度最高時段。伏季休漁期需查閱中華人民共和國農業農村部最新規定。

              1.3.1 When the summer fishing ban is lifted, the density of fishing vessels will normally increase to the highest. Please refer to the latest circulars issued by the Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Affairs of the People’s Republic of Chinafor detailed information on the summer fishing ban.

              2.夜間23時至次日凌晨4時是商漁船碰撞事故高發時段。

              1.3.2 Most collisions between merchant vessels and fishing vessels occur between 2300 and 0400.

              3.部分夜間錨泊漁船可能存在未按要求值班、顯示號燈和開啟船舶自動識別系統的情況。

              1.3.3 Some fishing vessels anchoring at night may not arrange proper watch-keeping or display proper lights or have turned on the AIS device as required.

              4.漁網網位儀可能對船舶自動識別系統、雷達和電子海圖顯示系統存在干擾。

              1.3.4 AIS transmitters onfishing nets or fishing marks may interfere with AIS, radar, ECDIS on merchant ships.

              5.部分木質漁船的雷達回波較弱,大風浪天氣情況下可能無法根據雷達回波辨識目標。

              1.3.5 The radar echoes of some wooden fishing vessels are relatively weak, and could be difficult to be detected by Radar in bad weather.

              6.駕駛人員交接班時要說明周邊水域商船與漁船動向等航行安全風險點。正在進行避讓的,要完成避讓行動并駛過讓清后再予交接。

              1.3.6 When handing over the watch, the traffic conditions of nearby merchant and fishing vessels and other navigation safety risks should be covered. Handover can only proceed after the on-going avoiding action is completed.

              二、避讓行動

              2. Action to Avoid Collision

              (一)堅持“早、大、寬、清”。

              2.1 Actions to avoid collision shall be taken in ample time, be substantial, at safe distance, and be finally past and clear.

              (二)構成碰撞危險時,及早通過VHF16頻道呼叫漁船。若數次嘗試呼叫無應答,應主動采取避讓行動,同時采用汽笛、燈光等其他視聽方式進行警告。

              2.2 When there is a risk of collision with fishing vessels, the latter should be called  via VHF CH 16 as early as possible. If there is no response after several attempts, avoiding actions should be taken proactively, and use other sound and light signals to warn the fishing vessels.

              (三)發現需緊急避讓的漁船,可用白晝信號燈閃爍至少5次,和/或用至少5短聲連續聲號引起漁船注意。緊急避讓時,除用舵避讓外,應同時考慮主機協調,減速避讓。

              2.3 While emergency action is needed to avoid a fishing vessel, at least 5 short and rapid flashes by Aldis light and / or at least 5 short and rapid blasts on the whistle can be used to attract the attention of the fishing vessel. In an emergency collision avoidance situation, in addition to a course alteration, reducing speed or stopping engine should be considered.

              (四)值班駕駛員在避讓漁船的同時,也要重點識別和關注其他商船的動態,以免與其構成碰撞危險,尤其是處在眾多漁船中的商船。

              2.4 Special attention should also be paid to the movements of other merchant vessels when taking action to avoid fishing vessels, so as not to develop risk of collision with other merchant vessels, especially when they are navigating amidst a large number of fishing vessels.

              (五)能見度不良情況下,應按規定鳴放聲號,必要時加派人員瞭頭。

              2.5 In or near an area of restricted visibility, sound signals should be used as required, and lookout(s) should be posted at bow if necessary.

              (六)大風浪天氣情況下,應降低航速、加強瞭望,嚴防漁船在視覺、雷達盲區內難于發現。

              2.6 In adverse weather, speed should be adjusted and lookout be enhanced, as fishing vessels located in the visual and radar blind sectors can be difficult to be identified.

              (七)特別注意事項。

              2.7 Matters requiring special attention.

              1.語言溝通時要充分考慮口音、語言表達等方面的局限性,確保雙方互相清楚對方意圖。

              2.7.1 While engaging in verbal communication, it is important to consider potential communication barriers such as accents and language expressions. This consideration ensures that both parties involved have a clear understanding of each other's intentions.

              2.若觀測到漁船航速在3節左右時,往往該漁船正在捕魚作業中,操作能力受限,需采取行動主動避讓。

              2.7.2 If it is observed that the speed of fishing vessels is at around 3 knots, they are often engaged in fishing operation with restricted maneuvrability.Proactive avoiding action should be taken accordingly.

              3.商船與漁船即使發生輕微擦碰也可能造成漁船受損甚至傾覆,而商船上的人員卻不易察覺。當近距離駛過漁船時,應仔細觀察,確保未發生擦碰或浪損。

              2.7.3 Even a slight collision or contact between a merchant vessel and a fishing vessel may cause damage or even capsizing of the fishing vessel. But it is not always easy for watchstanders on merchant vessels to notice the incident.  Close attention should be paid to ensure that no collision, wave damage or vessel suction occurs when passing a fishing vessel at close range.

              4.漁船與商船特別臨近時,出于護網或傳統習俗的原因,部分漁船可能會突然做出改向、加速、搶船頭等異常舉動。如遇漁船搶船頭情況,很可能是本船航行的前方有該漁船的漁網。

              2.7.4 When fishing vessels come into close proximity with merchant vessels, they may exhibit unusual behaviors such as abrupt speed changes, course alterations, or attempting to cross ahead of merchant vessels. These actions are often driven by fighting vessels’ desire to protect their nets or adhere to traditional customs. It is important for merchant vessels to be aware of these potential maneuvers and take appropriate measures to ensure the safety of both vessels involved.

              5.受到漁船作業燈光及網位儀干擾,駕駛員容易忽視漁船作業密集區內的其他商船。

              2.7.5 In areas where fishing vessels are densely concentrated, officers of merchant vessels may experience challenges in detecting other merchant vessels. This difficulty arises from the interference caused by the lights present on fishing vessels and AIS transmitters attached to their nets.

              三、應急救助

              3. Emergency Rescue

              (一)在碰撞不可避免時,應盡可能降低船速且避免本船船首與漁船側面撞擊。

              3.1 In situations where a collision becomes unavoidable, it is crucial to reduce ship's speed as much as possible. Additionally, efforts should be made to avoid a collision between the bow of merchant vessel and the side of the fishing vessel.

              (二)發生碰撞事故后,應立即停船,將人命救助置于首位,全力實施救助。全部遇險人員脫險前,在不嚴重危及自身安全的情況下,嚴禁放棄搜救擅自駛離現場。

              3.2 Following a collision, the vessel should be brought to an immediate stop. The primary focus should be on prioritizing life-saving measures and making every possible effort to rescue those in distress. It is imperative not to cease search and rescue operations or leave the scene without permission until all at risk have been safely removed from danger. This should be adhered to unless the safety of own vessel is severely compromised.

              (三)發生碰撞事故后,通過一切有效途徑,立即向就近的海事管理機構報告,報告內容應包含事故發生位置、遇險船舶名稱、人員傷亡情況、船舶受損情況、天氣海況、救助需求等。同時,通告周圍船舶,請求參與救助。

              3.3 Following a collision, it is essential to promptly report the incident to the nearest competent maritime authority using all available means of communication. The report should include vital information such as the accident's location, the name of the distressed vessel, details about casualties and damages, prevailing weather and sea conditions, and any specific rescue requirements. Additionally, nearby vessels should be immediately notified to aid in the rescue efforts.

              每位參加航行值班人員均應熟知上述內容。

              All crew members responsible for navigation watch-keeping should possess a thorough understanding of the above guidance.


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